Future Space Problems and Their Solutions


Series: Space Science, Exploration and Policies
BISAC: TEC002000

The emergence, existence, and development of the surrounding world, both on Earth and throughout the universe, are due to the gravitational interactions of many bodies. This book is devoted to the calculation of bodies’ movements in various cases of interaction that are relevant now and in the future. They are developed for the free access of the Galactica system, which is designed to provide the numerical solution for problems of the gravitational interaction of N-bodies. It tackles a whole range of problems: The optimal motion of the spacecraft, the evolution of the solar system for 100 million years, the influence of the Sun on Mercury’s perihelion, the motion of near-Earth asteroids, the evolution of Earth’s rotation axis, etc. As a result of solving a number of problems, new knowledge about our world was obtained.

The optimal trajectory of the spacecraft approaching the Sun is determined by numerical integration of the equations of motion for spacecraft, planets, the Sun, and the Moon.

Exact solutions to the problem of the Newtonian gravitational interaction of N material points moving around N2 concentric circular orbits are reviewed. Each circular orbit contains N3 located bodies and the body system rotates as an entity. Solutions in various forms were obtained. A computer program has been developed. Structures comprising up to one million bodies have been calculated.

The Galactica system is used for computing movements of two asteroids: Apophis and 1950DA. The evolution of their movement over a span of 1,000 years is investigated. The moments of their closest passages near the Earth are defined. The different ways of asteroid trajectory transformations into orbits of the Earth’s satellites are considered.

This book proves that the rate of Mercury’s perihelion rotation and relatively motionless space coincides with the Newtonian interaction of the planets and the oblate Sun.

The issues connected with the Astronomical Theory of Ice Ages from the perspective of celestial mechanics are examined. Differential equations of rotational motion are solved with the help of the numerical method without simplification. The evolution of the Earth’s axis was examined, and the periods of its oscillations that coincide with the observed ones were obtained. The calculations for a hundred thousand years demonstrate significant oscillation of the Earth’s axis. The oscillations of the Earth’s axis result in such oscillations of insolation that explain the paleoclimate changes.

The exact solution to the problem, in which the bodies are uniformly distributed over a sphere, were obtained; they move experiencing no mutual collisions. The problem solution allows the formation of several planets – for instance, one hundred planets resembling the Earth and moving under identical conditions with respect to the Sun. The latter possibility opens a way toward unrestricted progress for mankind.

The book describes all the theoretical, practical issues and the Galactica system manual so that even a novice researcher could use it in his/her works.

Table of Contents

Table of Contents



Chapter 1. Overview of Galactica Applications

Chapter 2. Optimization of the Mission to the Sun

Chapter 3. Multi-Layer Rotating Structures

Chapter 4. Dangerous Asteroids and their Possible Use

Chapter 5. The Mercury’s Perihelion Precession

Chapter 6. The Main Problems of Long-Term Climate Change

Chapter 7. The Astronomical Theory of Climate Change

Chapter 8. New Insolation And Paleoclimate of West Siberia

Chapter 9. Space Mechanics And Future Mankind Progress

Chapter 10. The Manual of the Galactica System



Appendix 1. Mathcad Program for Initial Condition File

Appendix 2. Modes of Display in the Standard Graphics of Fortran

Appendix 3. Fortran Text of the Galactica Program


“Today it is customary to speak of the Universe as a product of the Big Bang, which gave rise to the mystery of dark matter, expanding Universe and other tempting but badly comprehend realities. Joseph J. Smulsky gives the chance to feel harmony of the world, to see it in the image of reasonable classical simplicity peculiar to Isaak Newton’s mechanics. The elegance of simplicity and the complexity of the system appear in their mathematically comprehended unity.” – Vladislav V. Cheshev, Professor of the National Research Tomsk State University, Russia

“The problems of gravitational interaction of bodies are extremely diverse. The author considers the situations most significant for the space exploration and to the preservation of life conditions on the Earth-planet. The developed program Galactica can be of interest for professionals and students of the relevant specialties, as for as it allows to apply the received data for the analysis of various problems of celestial mechanics.” – Boris F. Boyarshinov, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Institute of Thermophysics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

“The book is very impressive. Joseph J. Smulsky considers grandiose projects: the optimal approach of the spacecraft to the Sun, the transformation of asteroids into satellites of the Earth, the creation of new planets like the Earth etc. Without doubt that the space agencies will use the solutions and soft, which are discussed and presented in the book. That will raise the computation culture in the area under consideration.” – Michael P. Anisimov, Dr.Sc. in Physics and Mathematics, Leading Research Scientist, Head of the Nanoaerosol Laboratory, Siberian Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia; Research Professor, Clarkson University, NY USA

“Environment and human well-being are due to many factors, including the influence of movements of cosmic bodies both in the Solar system and beyond. The proposed monograph provides an excellent opportunity to predict the motion and rotation of planets, to optimize the flights of spaceships by means of a sufficiently simple to assimilate the program Galactica. A lot of worries are caused by possible collisions of comets and asteroids with the Earth. The examples of the most dangerous two asteroids show the capabilities of the Galactica program to calculate their evolution. These opportunities are wider than they are presented in the book. But even what is given impresses with its multifaceted tasks and their scale.” – Nicolay E. Shishkin, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Institute of Thermophysics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, Russia

“In the newly published monograph “A New Astronomical Theory of the Ice Ages”, the author considers the problem as a whole within the time range of 20 million years. The material of the book is presented in the form that is easy to understand by broad masses of readers. The main results related to solution of diff erential equations of the orbital and rotational movements of the Earth are presented at the end of the book and in the Appendix…READ MORE-V.E. Zharov, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Department of Celestial Mechanics, Astrometry and Gravimetry, Russia
Published in Earth’s Cryosphere Scientific Journal 2019

Click here for a Review in Russian by L.M. Green, Academician and Published in Earth and the Universe, 5/2019

Keywords: Optimization, passive orbit, gravity maneuver, multi-layer rotating structure, exact solution, homographic and planar central configurations, dynamics, planets, asteroids Apophis and 1950DA, transformation of trajectories, satellites, stability, discussion, Mercury’s perihelion, observation; calculation, Sun’s Compound Model, equations, evolution, Earth’s orbit, Earth axis, inclination, obliquity; eccentricity, insolation, climate change, paleoclimate, Pleistocene; West Siberia, gravitational and Coulomb interaction, Solar system, equations of motion, computer calculations, free access, N-bodies problem, exact solutions, mankind progress

The book is of interest to researchers in the field of celestial mechanics, geophysics, peleoclimate, space exploration. It will be useful for a wide range of readers, for example, for teachers and military. The book can be used by students and post-graduate students to carry out theses and dissertations.

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